Miskawayh, al-‘Amiri, al-Tawhidi, the Brethren of Purity and Ismaili missionaries bring together philosophy with Persian culture, literature and Islam.
Drawing on Galen and Aristotle, philosophers from al-Kindi to Miskawayh compose ethical works designed us to achieve health in soul, as well as body.
Peter turns DJ, with some actual music interspersed with discussion about theories of music in Arabic philosophical texts.
Ibn al-Haytham draws on the tradition of geometrical optics to explain the mystery of human eyesight.
Deborah Black joins Peter to talk about al-Farabi's innovations concerning knowledge and certainty.