Peter chats with Sarah Pessin about the Neoplatonism of Jewish philosophers such as Isaac Israeli, Ibn Gabirol, and Maimonides.
Neoplatonism returns in Ibn Gabriol, who controversially holds that everything apart from God has both matter and form.
The historian Ibn Khaldūn applies the methods of philosophy to understand the rise and fall of political regimes.
Sufism, the mystical tradition of Islam, collides with philosophy in the work of Ibn ʿArabī.
Averroes scholar Richard C. Taylor joins Peter to talk about Averroes' views on the relation between Islam and philosophy.